We have shown that the electron density varies as z-1 and t-2 while the electron temperature shows a z-0.1 and t-2 type dependence where z is the distance from the target surface and t, the time after the termination of the laser pulse . Studies have also been carried out to determine the electron density and temperature in superconducting
YBa2Cu3O7 plasma, graphite plasma and different metal plasmas. Laser interferometric techniques are also employed to measure electron densities and such measurements demonstrate plasma shielding at high laser intensities. Our studies revealed the effect of different ambient
gases on the dynamics of laser ablated carbon plasma. The electron temperature and density show an abrupt change with the addition of ambient gases and these parameters also depend on the nature and composition of the gas used. It is noted that hotter and denser plasmas are formed in Ar atmosphere compared to He and air as a result of the difference in the efficiency of cascade-like growth of the electron number density and plasma absorption coefficient. The electron density exhibits a similar behavior irrespective of the background gas atmosphere. The inclusion of ambient atmosphere cools the hot electrons by collisions, leading to a more efficient electron impact excitation and plasma recombination, which lead to plasma confinement and in turn decrease of the electron density.